A president is the leader of a country or a division or part of a country, typically a republic, a democracy, or a dictatorship. The title “president” is sometimes used by extension for leaders of other groups. Etymologically, a president is one who presides (from Latin prae- “before” + sedere “to sit”; giving the term praeses). Originally, the term referred to the presiding officer of a ceremony or meeting (i.e., chairman), but today it most commonly refers to an executive official. Among other things, “President” today is a common title for the heads of state of most republics, whether presidential republics, semi-presidential republics or parliamentary republics.